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"J" is for the Jacksonborough Assembly. In January and February 1782—after a two year hiatus caused by the Revolutionary War, the General Assembly met at Jacksonborough--a small town on the Edisto River, about thirty miles south of British-occupied Charleston. The Assembly's most important work was its decision to confiscate the property of individuals who had supported the British occupation.  

"I" is for Indian trade. Trade between the colony of South Carolina and neighboring Indian tribes officially began in 1674 when the Proprietors directed Dr. Henry Woodward to establish peaceful relations and regular trade with the Westos. Very quickly, the deerskin trade became a source of wealth for some early colonists. It also became a contentious issue in terms of relationships with the Indians and damaging to native cultures.

For the second lecture in this four-part series of Conversations on South Carolina: The State and the New Nation, 1783-1828, Dr. Larry Watson discusses slavery in South Carolina. Professor Watson is Associate Professor of History & Adjunct Professor of History South Carolina State University and the University of South Carolina. He is author of numerous articles on African American life in the American South.

This series of public conversations is sponsored by the College of Arts and Sciences and the Southern Studies Institute

"H" is for Halsey, William Melton [1915-1999]. Artist. In 1928 Halsey became a youthful protégé of Charleston Renaissance artist Elizabeth O'Neill Verner. He received his artistic training at the University of South Carolina and the Boston Museum School. After further study in Mexico, he returned to his native Charleston in 1945. Halsey supported himself by teaching art classes and later as artist-in-residence at the College of Charleston where the William Halsey Gallery at the Simons Art Center is named for him.

"B" is for Bratton, William [ca. 1742-1815]. Soldier, legislator. Bratton was born in county Antrim, Northern Ireland and immigrated with his family to America not long afterward. Beginning in 1765, an extended family of Brattons moved into present-day York County as part of a larger Scots-Irish migration into the Carolina Piedmont. In 1766, Bratton purchased 200 acres on Fishing Creek and built a two-story log house that is still standing today. During the Revolutionary War, he serve din the militia and rose to the rank of colonel and commanded a regiment in Thomas Sumter’s Brigade.

"B" is for Black River

Feb 16, 2017

"B" is for Black River. The Black River takes its name from its tea-colored waters. The river begins in the Sandhills of Lee County, and is joined at Rocky Bluff Swamp near Sumter. The Pocotaligo River flows into the Black between Manning and Kingstree.  In some places the river is swamp like, while in others it is swift moving with a sandy bottom. After travelling over 150 miles through four counties, the Black River becomes part of the Great Pee Dee River near Georgetown.

"B" is for Brawley, Benjamin Griffith [1882-1939]. Educator, author, editor, clergyman. A native of Columbia, Brawley was a gifted and enthusiastic student—earning degrees form the University of Chicago and Harvard. In 1921 he was ordained a Baptist minister. Between 1902 and 1939, he taught English at various predominantly black colleges in the South and East—including Atlanta Baptist College [now Moorehouse], Shaw University in Raleigh, and Howard University in Washington.

"B" is for Brattonsville. Brattonsville is the site of a large eighteenth and nineteenth-century plantation in southern York County situated on the south fork of Fishing Creek. The settlement began in 1766 as the two hundred acre farm of Colonel William Bratton. John Simpson Bratton inherited the bulk of his father’s estate and constructed the large two-story Georgian mansion known as the Homestead.

"C" is for the Charleston Mercury. Although begun as a literary journal, the Charleston Mercury developed into one of the state’s most radical and combative newspapers. In 1821 a local bookseller established the paper, but in 1823 sold it to Henry Laurens Pinckney who transformed it into a partisan organ for John C. Calhoun. By 1830, the Mercury had become a strong proponent of nullification. Although its ownership changed several times in the 1840s and 1850s, its editorial tone remained aggressive.

Peter Coclanis
global.unc.edu/

Dr. Peter Coclanis, the Albert Ray Newsome Distinguished Professor & Director of the Global Research Institute at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, joins Dr. Edgar for the first of a series of Conversations on South Carolina: The State and the New Nation, 1783-1828. Professor Coclanis, author of The Shadow of a Dream: Economic Life and Death in the South Carolina Low Country, 1670-1920, will discuss the importance of cotton to the state's economy.

"B" is for Black River

Feb 13, 2017

"B" is for Black River. The Black River takes its name from its tea-colored waters. The river begins in the Sandhills of Lee County, and is joined at Rocky Bluff Swamp near Sumter. The Pocotaligo River flows into the Black between Manning and Kingstree.  In some places the river is swamp like, while in others it is swift moving with a sandy bottom. After travelling over 150 miles through four counties, the Black River becomes part of the Great Pee Dee River near Georgetown.

"P" is for Porcher, Francis Peyre [1824-1895]. Physician, botanist. In 1844 Porcher graduated with honors from the South Carolina College and entered the Medical College of the State of South Carolina in Charleston. After completing his studies he became co-editor of the Charleston Medical Journal and Review. In 1855 he and a colleague established a hospital for African Americans in Charleston. He was also on the staff of the Marine Hospital.

"C" is for Clemson Blue Cheese. In 1940, a Clemson College dairy professor wondered if he could cure blue mold cheese in the dark, damp interior of Stumphouse Mountain Tunnel near Walhalla in Oconee County. He hoped that the product would be similar to French Roquefort cheese. His goal also was to use surplus milk from local cows, including Clemson’s own herd.

"B" is for Brawley, Edward McKnight (1851-1923). Missionary, educator. Born in Charleston, a free person of color, Brawley was educated in Philadelphia and studied theology at Howard University. He graduated from Bucknell College and was ordained a Baptist minister.

"W" is for World War II (1941-1945). Prior to the entry of the US into World War II, the federal government constructed or expanded military installations, including Camp Jackson (Columbia), Camp Croft (Spartanburg), the Navy Yard (Charleston), and several smaller bases. At least 900,000 men received military training in South Carolina. More than 180,000 Carolinians (including 2,500 women) served in the armed forces. Thousands more wanted to serve, but 41% of those examined were rejected for mental or physical problems.

"W" is for World War I (1917-1918). When Congress declared war on Germany in April 1917, part of South Carolina was already on a war footing. More than 65,000 South Carolinians served in the armed forces. Eight men from the state were awarded the Medal of Honor. At home civilians supported the war effort through liberty bond drives, home gardens, and meatless and wheatless days. Patriotism cut across racial boundaries in broad support for bond drives and the Red Cross.

"A" is for African Methodist Episcopal Church. The African Episcopal Church [AME] is the oldest African American denomination in the country. In 1817, after white Methodists in Charleston tried to control their worship, 4,000 black Methodists  organized themselves into an AME congregation—the second-largest in the denomination and its southernmost branch. Following the Denmark Vesey conspiracy, the church was demolished and its membership dispersed. In 1863 the denomination returned to South Carolina and became a major presence in the state.

"J" is for Jackson, Joseph Jefferson Wofford [1888-1951]. Baseball Player. "Shoeless Joe" Jackson was reared in the mill villages of Pelzer and Greenville. He never attended school and could neither read nor write.  At thirteen he began to work full-time in the mill and also to play for the mill's baseball team.  In 1908 he turned pro and during the season landed in the majors with the Philadelphia Athletics.

"I" is for the Indian Affairs Commission. The first Indian Affairs Commission was established by the Lords Proprietors in the 1680s, but did not succeed in arbitrating disputes between Indians and European settlers. A later commission, created in 1710 by the Commons House of Assembly was intended primarily to regulate the Indian deerskin trade. Its most noted commissioner was Thomas Nairne.

"H" is for Hagood, Johnson [1829-1898]. Soldier, governor. A native of Barnwell District, he graduated with distinction from the Citadel in 1847 and then studied law. With the outbreak of the Civil War, he was elected colonel of the first South Carolina Regiment of Volunteers. Hagood saw action continuously from the reduction of Fort Sumter in April 1861 to the Battle of Bentonville in March 1865. His gallantry under fire led to his promotion to brigadier general. 

"G" is for the Gadsden Flag, a bright yellow banner with a gray, coiled rattlesnake at its center with the words "Don't Tread on Me" inscribed beneath. Although there had been similar flags since the French and Indian War, this particular flag can be traced to Christopher Gadsden, one of the state's delegates to the First Continental Congress. The rattlesnake in a variety of poses was used to reflect colonial anger and defiance.

"F" is for the Farmer's Alliance. Founded in the 1870s in Texas, the National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union and its segregated counterpart the Colored Farmers' National Alliance addressed the issues of debt and depressed commodity prices that most rural Americans faced. The first county alliance in South Carolina was founded in Marion in 1887 and within a year there was a statewide alliance. 

Dr. Chester DePratter
santa-elena.org

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, the founder and first governor of La Florida, established several outposts in what is now the southeastern United States. One was at St. Augustine in 1565 and another in 1566 at the former French outpost of Charlesfort, now known as Santa Elena. In total, the colony of Santa Elena lasted for little more than two decades, as the Spanish abandoned the town in 1587.

"E" is for Edgefield County [502 square miles; population 24,595]. Edgefield County was created in 1785 out of the southern portion of Ninety Six Judicial District. Originally, the county encompassed 1,702 square miles and was the largest in the state—really more a region than a county. Some of the state's earliest industries were located here: textiles in the Horse Creek Valley and pottery in Pottersville.

"D" is for Darlington County [561 square miles; population 67,394]. Darlington County was crated in 1785 out of the southern one-third of the Cheraws Judicial District. Over the years it lost portions of its territory to Florence and Lee counties. The first European settlers in the area were Welsh Baptists from Pennsylvania who took up land near Society Hill in what was called the Welsh Neck.

"C" is for Camp, Wofford Benjamin [1894–1986]. Agriculturalist, entrepreneur. Bill Camp, a native of Cherokee County, studied agronomy at Clemson—specializing in cotton breeding. In 1917 he joined the US Department of Agriculture's Cotton Section and was sent to California. With the boll weevil ravaging the South, the USDA fostered the culture of cotton west of the Rockies. Camp introduced the long-staple Pima variety in California's San Jauquin Valley, and soon thousands of acres were thriving. California farmers hailed him as their state's “Cotton Man.”

"B" is for the Bank of the State of South Carolina. The General Assembly chartered the Bank of the State of South Carolina in 1812—giving it the power to circulate currency and to act as the fiscal agent of the state. The main branch was located in Charleston, but by 1860 there were branches in Abbeville, Camden, Columbia, and Georgetown; the bank also had business agents in global financial centers such as New York and Liverpool.

sc at to z

Jan 24, 2017

"S" is for Sirrine, Joseph Emory [1872-1947]. Architect, engineer. After graduating from Furman Sirrine was hired by the New England textile engineering firm Lockwood Green & Company to be the resident engineer for several projects in Greenville. In 1899 the company appointed him as its southern representative, responsible for all the company’s textile construction. Four years later he opened his own business, J.E. Sirrine, Architects and Engineers. The company built mills throughout the southeast as well as schools, churches, tobacco factories, bridges, colleges, and military camps.

"S" is for Sinclair, Bennie Lee [1939-2000]. Novelist, poet. A Greenville native, Sinclair published her first poem at the age of six. The overwhelming critical praise and attention cause her to stop writing for a number of years. In 1986 she was appointed the state’s fifth poet laureate, a position she held for the remainder of her life. She taught writing at Furman and conducted poetry workshops at Notre Dame, Western Carolina, and Brevard College. For twenty-eight years she taught in the schools of South Carolina through the Arts Commission’s Artist-in-Residence program.

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